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Obama administration says no deal reached on climate change

Written By kom nampultig on Minggu, 31 Agustus 2014 | 22.33

WASHINGTON: Asserting that countries like India and China need to play a significant role in addressing the challenges of climate change, the Obama administration has strongly refuted reports that it has reached any international agreement to combat the critical global issue.

Obama administration's refutation came after The New York Times reported that the United States was pushing for an international voluntary treaty on climate change.

"Not a word of the new climate agreement currently under discussion has been written, so it is entirely premature to say whether it will or won't require Senate approval," state department spokesperson Jen Psaki said.

"Our goal is to negotiate a successful and effective global climate agreement that can help address this pressing challenge. Anything that is eventually negotiated and that should go to the Senate will go to the Senate. We will continue to consult with Congress on this important issue," she said.

The agreement hasn't been written yet, White House press secretary Josh Earnest said.

"We're pushing to broker the kind of an agreement that would tangibly have an impact on reducing the causes of climate change and the causes of the kinds of pollution that have such a detrimental effect on public health in this country and in communities all around the world," he said.

"So we're pushing hard on this. The President has played a leading role on this in the past and he is going to play a leading role on it this time. But in terms of what the details are going to be in that agreement, they haven't even started writing the agreement yet so it's hard for me to say," he said.

He said Obama didn't shy about trying to lead on the international stage on the issue of climate change.

"The President play an important role in Copenhagen in 2009 in trying to broker some agreements. In his conversations with leaders in India and China and other countries, the President talks regularly about joint steps that can be taken to reduce the causes of climate change," he said.

Obama has articulated a number of times this year the need to address the threat that climate change poses both to human health and to the US economy.

"That's why he put forward a comprehensive plan to cut carbon pollution and prepare the United States for the impacts of climate change while also leading an international effort to combat global climate change," he said.

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Elusive marbled cat sighted in Buxa Tiger Reserve

KOLKATA: The recent sighting of an elusive clouded leopard is not the only good news coming in from Buxa Tiger Reserve (BTR) at the moment. There's more in store.

The forest in the Dooars' foothills has given wildlife enthusiasts another reason to rejoice with the recent sighting of a marbled cat, which has not been spotted in the tiger reserve in almost two decades.

A camera-trap exercise, undertaken jointly by the state forest department and city-based NGO Nature Environment and Wildlife Society (NEWS) to assess the presence and distribution of lesser cats in the tiger reserve, has detected the presence of this rare cat in the forest.

"One of the camera-trap stations placed in the foothills of Sankosh beat has captured the image of the elusive cat. The cloud-like pattern of the spots on its body helped us come to the conclusion that it is a marbled cat. The spots on its forehead and crown merge into narrow longitudinal stripes on the neck, and irregular stripes on the back. The back and flanks are marked with dark, irregular dark-edged blotches, like that of clouded leopards," said Biswajit Roy Chowdhury of NEWS.

Additional principal chief conservator of forest Pradeep Vyas said this was an extremely rare species to sight because of its nocturnal nature. Former deputy field director of the tiger reserve, Subhankar Sengupta, said that this was the first photographic evidence of the presence of this lesser cat in Buxa in recent years. "These are nocturnal and arboreal animals. Hence, it is very difficult to sight them," he added.

According to Roy Chowdhury, the manager of Kumargram Tea Estate had claimed to have photographed a marbled cat in this forest several years ago. The marbled cat is similar in size to a domestic cat, with a more thickly furred tail, which may be longer than its body.

The marbled cat ('Pardofelis marmorata') is a small wild cat of South and Southeast Asia. The International Union for Conservation of Nature listed it as vulnerable in 2002. The total effective population of the species is suspected to be fewer than 10,000 mature individuals, with no single population numbering more than 1,000.

Poaching is prevalent throughout much of its range. Its skin, meat, and bones are in demand. During a survey in the Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh, a marbled cat was encountered that had been killed by a local hunter for a festival celebrated by the indigenous Apatani community in March and April every year.

Roy Chowdhury said that apart from the marbled cat, elusive species such as crab-eating mongoose, hog badger and yellow-throated marten were also sighted in some of the camera-trap stations.

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Snails help scientists investigate rise, fall of Tibetan Plateau

Written By kom nampultig on Sabtu, 30 Agustus 2014 | 22.33

WASHINGTON: A new research has helped scientists investigate the rise and fall of the Tibetan Plateau by using snail shells.

The rise of the Tibetan plateau, the largest topographic anomaly above sea level on Earth, has been important for both its profound effect on climate and its reflection of continental dynamics.

Katharine Huntington and colleagues employed a cutting-edge geochemical tool, "clumped" isotope thermometry, using modern and fossil snail shells to investigate the uplift history of the Zhada basin in southwestern Tibet.

Views range widely on the timing of surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau to its current high (4.5km) over more than 2.5 square kilometers. Specifically, interpretations differ on whether the modern high elevations were recently developed or are largely a continuation of high elevations developed prior to India-Asian collision in the Eocene.

Clumped isotope temperatures of modern and fossil snail shells have recorded changing lake water temperatures over the last nine million years. This is a reflection of changes in surface temperature as a function of climate and elevation change. A key to their Zhada Basin paleo-elevation reconstruction is that Huntington and colleagues were able to contextualize them with sampling of modern and Holocene-age tufa and shells from a range of aquatic environments.

It was found that the Zhada basin was significantly colder from three to nine million years ago, implying a loss of elevation of more than one kilometer since the Pliocene. While surprising given the extreme (4km) elevation of the basin today, the higher paleo-elevation helps explain paleontological evidence of cold-adapted mammals living in a high-elevation climate, and was probably the local expression of east-west extension across much of the southern Tibetan Plateau at this time.

The study is published in GSA Bulletin.

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Two-third of Uttar Pradesh districts face drought

LUCKNOW: More than two-third of the districts in Uttar Pradesh are facing an acute drought, officials said on Saturday.

Officials said more than 53 of its 75 districts were reeling under an acute drought because of below average rainfall during the monsoon months that has affected agriculture and the paddy crop adversely.

Out of these districts, officials said the condition in at least 19 is "very acute and severe".

The rainfall has been only 40 percent of the average, an official told IANS, adding chief minister Akhilesh Yadav has asked chief secretary Alok Ranjan to assess the drought conditions so that relief could be provided to farmers.

The chief secretary has asked district magistrate of the affected districts to prepare a status report and submit it to the government at the earliest.

"Once the government receives a status report with regards to the district administration's assessment, we will propose compensation and final assistance," an official told IANS.

Officials said there are acute drought conditions in Rampur, Meerut, Budaun, Auraiyya, Saharanpur, Etah, Kaushambi, Fatehpur, Hapur, Mainpuri, Mahoba, Etawah, Kanpur dehat, Hardoi, Firozabad, Hardoi, Farukkhabad, Bulandshahr and Ghaziabad areas.

Of the normal drought affected districts, prominent are Mau, Jaunpur, Chandauli, Azamgarh, Mathura, Aligarh, Muzaffarnagar, Shamli, Bareilly, Pilibhit, Kannauj and Hathras.

The opposition has attacked the state government for delay in identifying the drought.

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Chili smoke to protect farms from wild animals in Maharashtra

Written By kom nampultig on Jumat, 29 Agustus 2014 | 22.33

NAGPUR: The state forest department pays about Rs 5 crore annually to farmers as compensation for crop depredation by wild animals. To reduce this burden, the wildlife wing has now decided to promote 'chili smoke', a cost-effective technique pioneered by wildlife vet and elephant expert Dr Rudraditya.

Himachal Pradesh-based Dr Rudraditya concluded his three-month-long campaign in 11 forest circles in the state last week. Talking to TOI, he said his proposal was approved by PCCF (wildlife) Sarjan Bhagat in April. "Since then, I have demonstrated the low cost and affordable technique in 140 vulnerable villages and results are mind-boggling," he said.

Under the technique, half kg chilies are wrapped in a gunny sack. The material is tied to a stick or pole and burnt after fixing it at the farm boundary. The strong pungent smell of the chilies keeps wild animals away from the farm.

"Wild animals have an amazing sense of smell. The chili smoke can travel up to 500-1000 metres," claimed Santosh Narnawre, a farmer from Kiniwalgi in Darwha (Yavatmal).

Narnawre said farmers used chili smoke from 6pm till 9pm, the time when wild boars and nilgais are most active. "We use the technique twice a week. It is yielding 100% results," he added.

Bhagat said, "We have received good feedback from farmers on the technique. Its full implementation will be done in the state from wildlife week in October. We are ready with videos and literature. The staff trained by Dr Rudraditya will promote it. We hope to curb damage to crops by animals in a big way."

Dr Rudraditya had first hit upon chili smoke technique in 2003 and implemented it around Kafue National Park in Zambia in Africa where he worked as a wildlife vet under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Later, it was also implemented near other African parks where farmers faced problem from elephants.

Dr Rudraditya also popularized the method in Thailand and Nepal where he worked as a consultant between 2008 and 2011. Back in India, he implemented it in elephant states like Odisha, Kerala, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal. In J&K and Himachal, chili smoke was used to scare away sloth bears. "I also used it to solve menace of leopards and elephants in Assam tea gardens," said Dr Rudraditya.

In Marathwada, wild boars damaging crops is a big issue. "Farmers are using this technique there. It is also helping them avoid man-animal conflict," he said.

The demonstration was also carried out in vulnerable Chandrapur district where 17 people have died in man-animal conflict this year. A tiger in Pombhurna was shot dead on August 19. When asked, Dr Rudraditya said, "The Kothari range forest officer (RFO) did not allow me to enter the conflict area. I could have tried to solve the problem with my technique. I can connect with the locals very well."

Dr Rudraditya came into elephant conservation after his parents were killed by a herd of elephants in Namphada park in Arunachal Pradesh. He was just 10 years then. He worked on sensitizing villagers in state for free. The department only paid for his travel and board.

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Warming aids Arctic economies but far short of 'cold rush'

OSLO: Climate change is aiding shipping, fisheries and tourism in the Arctic but the economic gains fall short of a "cold rush" for an icy region where temperatures are rising twice as fast as the world average.

A first cruise ship will travel the icy Northwest Passage north of Canada in 2016, Iceland has unilaterally set itself mackerel quotas as stocks shift north and Greenland is experimenting with crops such as tomatoes.

Yet businesses, including oil and gas companies or mining firms looking north, face risks including that permafrost will thaw and ruin ice roads, buildings and pipelines. A melt could also cause huge damage by unlocking frozen greenhouse gases.

"There are those who think that growing strawberries in Greenland and drilling for oil in the Arctic are the new economic frontiers," said Achim Steiner, head of the UN Environment Programme.

"I would caution against the hypothetical bonanza that some people see," he told Reuters of Arctic regions in Russia, Nordic nations, Alaska and Canada. UN studies say global warming will be harmful overall with heatwaves, floods and rising seas.

Fewer fur coats

In 2002, however, Russian President Vladimir Putin mused that warming might benefit Russia - thereby easing pressure to curb greenhouse gas emissions. He joked that warmer temperatures could mean fewer fur coats in northern regions.

More than a decade later, researchers see the Arctic as a test case for the impacts of climate change. It is warming fast because a thaw of white ice and snow exposes darker ground and water below that soak up more of the sun's heat.

"So far, I believe the benefits (of Arctic warming) outweigh the potential problems," said Oleg Anisimov, a Russian scientist who co-authored a chapter about the impacts of climate change in polar regions for a UN report on global warming this year.

Others say it is hard to discern benefits. Factors such as improved drilling technology or relatively high oil prices around $100 a barrel may be bigger drivers for change than a thaw in a chill, remote region shrouded in winter darkness.

Off Alaska, for instance, oil company bids for leases in the Arctic Chukchi and Beaufort seas since 2005 have totalled about $2.7 billion. But a previous round in the 1980s — before global warming was an issue — attracted similar sums, according to data from the US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management.

"There are subjective interpretations of development costs and benefits (tourism, fishing, oil and gas, shipping) but it will be some years before there are enough trends and data," said Fran Ulmer, President Barack Obama's chair of the U.S. Arctic Research Commission.

Indigenous peoples doubt there are benefits. Aqqaluk Lynge, a Greenlander and ex-head of the Inuit Circumpolar Council, said vital dogsleds were useless in some areas because of the thaw.

"People think the economy is Wall Street but it's the local economy that's feeling the pressure," he said.

Among new activities, 71 cargo ships used a short-cut shipping route between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans north of Russia in 2013. Roughly the same number is likely in 2014, said Sergei Balmasov of the Northern Sea Route Information Office.

In a sign of more tourism, Crystal Cruises will send its Crystal Serenity ship from Anchorage to New York in 2016 past icebergs and polar bears north of Canada — priced from $19,755 per passenger and with an escort vessel as an ice-breaker.

Cruises, Cargo

The route was first navigated in 1903-1906 by Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, but has only been ice-free in some recent years. Paul Garcia, spokesman for Crystal Cruises, said there had been a high volume of bookings so far.

Tourism has benefited in some areas. The number of nights spent by visitors to the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard north of Norway rose to 107,000 in 2013 from 24,000 in 1993.

And cod, haddock, herring and blue whiting are among fish stocks expanding north. Iceland has set new, unilateral quotas for mackerel, including almost 150,000 tonnes in 2014.

"The biomass sum of all types of species is increasing, and will continue to increase in the Arctic," said Svein Sundby, of the Institute of Marine Research in Norway.

Among oil companies, Exxon Mobil began drilling in Russia's Arctic on Aug. 9 despite Western sanctions on its Russian partner Rosneft over Ukraine crisis.

But Royal Dutch Shell dropped plans for drilling in 2014 after spending $5 billion on exploration since 2005, following protests and accidents off Alaska.

And despite any gains, a 2013 study in the journal Nature said the Arctic has a hidden economic time bomb.

A major release of methane trapped in the frozen seabed off Russia could accelerate global warming and cause $60 trillion in damage, almost the size of world GDP, it said. Costs would be from more heatwaves, floods, droughts and rising sea levels.

"The size (of drawbacks) is likely to dwarf any kind of benefits," said Chris Hope of the Judge Business School at Cambridge University, who was among the authors.

The UN's panel of climate experts says that it is at least 95 percent probable that human activities are the main driver of warming since 1950. But many voters are doubtful, suspecting that natural variations are to blame.

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Plastic waste may trigger water bombs in Himalayas

Written By kom nampultig on Kamis, 28 Agustus 2014 | 22.33

Unfortunately, this is the ugly truth of the Himalayas. The heap, which includes biodegradable plastic, can be found just four kilometres from Shimla in the reserved forest of Lalpani. And this is not an isolated pocket either. The amount of plastic and other bio-degradable waste in the Himalayas is growing at an alarming rate and wreaking havoc with this fragile ecosystem. Trekkers and tourists have become litterbugs, who don't think before tossing a juice can or wafer wrapper by the mountainside.

To save the fragile ecology of Himalayas, the Himachal Pradesh government on October 2, 2009, banned the use, storage, sale and distribution of all types of polythene bags. On October 2, 2011, the government imposed blanket ban on the use and storage of nonbiodegradable disposable plastic cups, plates and glasses and warned that violators would be fined up to Rs 5,000. Himachal Pradesh was the first to ban plastic and polythene bags. This photograph is, however, proof that the law is totally ineffective.

The disrespect for the Himalayas is capable of causing a time bomb of water. Biodegradable waste absorbs heat, which along with global warming, raises the overall temperature in the mountains, melting glaciers and creating glacial lakes thus posing the threat of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in the future. Continuous storage of huge quantities of water has turned these lakes on high mountains into "water bombs" for the population living downstream in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Nepal. The Himalayan range extends for approximately 2,400km within the 3,500km length of the Hindu Kush-Himalayan ranges, and has about 33,000sqkm of the estimated 110,000sqkm of glaciated area.

Plastic and other bio-degradable waste in the Himalayas is posing a big threat to the fragile ecosystem. The Nepal Himalayas occupy 800km of the central section of the Himalayan range while Indian part has more than 5,000 glaciers of different sizes and shapes.

If you thought that the plastic bag you left on a mountain slope after a trekking expedition would have no impact on the mighty glaciers, think again. J C Kuniyal, senior scientist at G B Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Mohal in Kullu says, "In 2005, non-biodegradable waste was 16.9% of total waste in Manali and 34.8% in Kullu in Himachal Pradesh. In and around the Valley of Flowers and the Pindari valley in Uttarakhand, such waste comprised 84.5 and 66.4% of the total generated waste. Thus, these results show that non-biodegradable is much higher in trekking and expedition locations than the down-slope hill spots." The numbers have only grown since.

"Non-biodegradable waste absorbs heat which results in rise in temperature and melting of glaciers. Formation of new lakes has posed a threat of glacial lake outburst flood. No one knows when the lakes would burst in next 20, 30 or 50 years," says Professor R K Ganjoo, a specialist in quaternary geomorphology, climate change and glaciology, from Jammu University. There are 249 glacial lakes in Himachal Pradesh and 11 have been identified as having potential risk of breaching. Experts said that these lakes need regular monitoring.

In the Uttarakhand Himalayas there are 127 glacial lakes of varying sizes, the total area of which is around 75sqkm. A report by the expert committee on glaciers of the Uttarakhand government, headed by B R Arora, director, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG), said, "There are 12 hydropower projects in Uttarakhand with an installed generation capacity of 1280MW.

Seven hydel projects with an installed capacity of about 4134MW are in various stages of completion, while 11 others with an installed capacity of about 1961MW are in various stages of investigation. Regular monitoring of glacial lakes and glacial retreat is therefore utmost necessary to safeguard the power projects in the state."

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Arunachal sets example: 70% afforestation achieved

ITANAGAR: Setting an example, the Arunachal Pradesh environment and forest department has achieved 70 per cent afforestation in the state at a time when forest areas are decreasing alarmingly in the country.

The afforestation programme was undertaken under the State Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority in 2010 in the areas where trees were cut by user-agencies for various purposes.

A Supreme Court judgment recently directed that there should be compensatory afforestation by the user-agency which should set apart a sum of money for the purpose.

The judgment also directed that the state concerned would have to make available land on which afforestation could take place.

"The fund resources for CAMPA are generated from the user-agencies who are proposing various developmental activities and against which they are applying for forest clearance," Diganta Gogoi, deputy conservator of forest (CAMPA & WP), said.

The state with a total 83,743 sq km geographical area has more than 5,000 species of flowering plants, 600 species of orchids, 89 species of bamboos, 18 species of canes, 400 species of ferns, 24 species of gymnosperms and equally high number of unexplored algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes and micro-organism.

Moreover, it is home to more than 100 species of mammals, 650 birds, 83 reptiles, 130 fishes and seven non-human primates and innumerable species of insects, mirco-organisms and other life forms.

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Elephants belong in the wild: Mary Kom

Written By kom nampultig on Rabu, 27 Agustus 2014 | 22.33

MUMBAI: Peering into the camera with fierce determination, covered with scars and trying to break her chains, Padma Bhushan award recipient, Olympic medallist and five-time undisputed world boxing champion Mangte Chungneijang Mary Kom, managed by IOS Sports and Entertainment, is featured in a striking new campaign from People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) India just in time before Ganesh Chaturthi festival.

The campaign's photo caption reads, "Elephants Belong in the Wild, Not in Chains. Ban Animal Circuses". It was shot by leading photographer Gaurav Sawn, and Kom's hair styling and make-up were done by Rohini Foregard.

"Circuses are cruel places for animals, where they are beaten and tortured. As a mother, I can imagine what animals go through when their children are taken away from them to be forced to perform in circuses. It's sad!" says Mary. "We humans choose to perform, but animals are given no choice," she adds.

Elephants and other animals in circuses are subjected to chronic confinement, physical abuse and psychological torment. Whips and other weapons — including ankuses, which are heavy, sharp steel-tipped rods — are often used to inflict pain on elephants and beat them into submission. Following a nine-month investigation of circuses by a team that included representatives from PETA and its sister organisation Animal Rahat, the Animal Welfare Board of India, a statutory body operating under the ministry of environment and forests, decided to stop the registration of elephants used to perform in circuses. However, this decision has yet to be implemented.

Kom is from Manipur. She is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and Padmashree awards. "Magnificent Mary," as she has been dubbed, was named Sportswoman of the Year in 2010 at the Sahara India Sports Awards and is India's most successful female athlete of all time.

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Earth can sustain more terrestrial plant growth

CHICAGO: Earth can produce much more land-plant biomass — the total material in leaves, stems, roots, fruits, grains and other terrestrial plant parts — than previously thought, according to a new study.

The study recalculates the theoretical limit of terrestrial plant productivity, and finds that it is much higher than many current estimates allow.

"When you try to estimate something over the whole planet, you have to make some simplifying assumptions," said University of Illinois plant biology professor Evan DeLucia, who led the new analysis.

"And most previous research assumes that the maximum productivity you could get out of a landscape is what the natural ecosystem would have produced. But it turns out that in nature very few plants have evolved to maximize their growth rates," said DeLucia.

Estimates derived from satellite images of vegetation and modelling suggest that about 54 gigatons of carbon is converted into terrestrial plant biomass each year, the researchers report.

"This value has remained stable for the past several decades, leading to the conclusion that it represents a planetary boundary - an upper limit on global biomass production," the researchers said.

But these assumptions don't take into consideration human efforts to boost plant productivity through genetic manipulation, plant breeding and land management, DeLucia said. Such efforts have already yielded some extremely productive plants.

For example, in Illinois a hybrid grass, Miscanthus x giganteus, without fertiliser or irrigation produced 10 to 16 tonnes of above-ground biomass per acre, more than double the productivity of native prairie vegetation or corn.

And genetically modified no-till corn is more than five times as productive - in terms of total biomass generated per acre - as restored prairie in Wisconsin.

Some non-native species also outcompete native species; this is what makes many of them invasive, DeLucia said.

The team used a model of light-use efficiency and the theoretical maximum efficiency with which plant canopies convert solar radiation to biomass to estimate the theoretical limit of net primary production (NPP) on a global scale.

This newly calculated limit was "roughly two orders of magnitude higher than the productivity of most current managed or natural ecosystems," the authors said.

"We're not saying that this is even approachable, but the theory tells us that what is possible on the planet is much, much higher than what current estimates are," DeLucia said.

The study was published in the journal Environmental Science and Technology.

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